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8. Muslim saints and sufis in India
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The Evidence
Section 8:
Muslim saints and sufis in India


Translator’s Note:
This Section is similar in content to the last, but it concentrates on saints and sufi writers who moulded the religious environment of the part of the world where Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad lived. Besides recognised saints of classical ages, writings of more recent periods have also been quoted, showing that such forms of expression for spiritual ranks are also used in modern times.

8.1: Introduction

People who are God-fearing and fair-minded should take a look at the spiritual thought prevailing in the environment in which Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad appeared, in the cities of Punjab and of the Indian sub-continent generally where there now remained just memorials of the great Sufi saints and savants of Islam. These were the cities of Ajmer, Sirhind, Sialkot, Lahore, Pak Patan, Sultan Bahu, Tonsa, Chachar, Delhi, Deoband, Thana Bhoon, Gangoh, Bareli, etc. If the opponents of the Ahmadiyya Movement would read the pronouncements and writings of the saints who arose in these places, they would not raise objections to Hazrat Mirza’s explanations of the fine points and truths of Tasawwuf and Tariqat (the spiritual side of Islam). A person who reads the revelations and writings of Hazrat Mirza in the light of the views of these eminent saints would not only comprehend the intricate concepts and terms of Tariqat, but would be convinced of the greatness of Hazrat Mirza, and would not hesitate in classing him with the most renowned elders of Islam.

8.2: Pronouncements of saints

1. Khawaja Mu‘in-ud-Din Chishti of Ajmer (d. 1236 C.E.)

He was the mujaddid of his time and the saint who laid the foundations of the propagation of Islam in India. He wrote the following verses:
  1. “Every moment the Holy Spirit [angel Gabriel] inspires into Mu‘in,
    “So it is not me who says this, but the fact is that I am the second Jesus.”

    (Diwan Khawaja Ajmeri, ode no. 70, p. 102)

  2. “If the Holy Spirit continues bringing its help,
    “Every day in the world the Mary of the time would give birth to a Jesus.”

    (ibid.)

  3. It is recorded:

    “Once in our presence a man came to enter into the discipleship of the Khawaja of Ajmer. The Khawaja asked him to recite the Kalima [i.e. There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah]. The man recited the Kalima. The Khawaja said to him: ‘Say it like this, There is no god but Allah and Chishti is the Messenger of Allah’. The man did so, and the Khawaja accepted the pledge from him and invested him with the robe of honour.”

    (Fawa’id as-Salikeen, p. 18)

2. Shaikh Ahmad of Sirhind (d. 1624 C.E.)

Known in India and Pakistan as Mujaddid Alif Sani (Mujaddid of the second millenium of Islam), this saint and scholar wrote:
  1. “But that Sufi who, after attaining fana and baqa, and sair an-illa b-illa [i.e. contact and nearness with God], turns to the world and calls people to the way of truth, he attains a part of prophethood, and is classed with those who deliver the commandments of the faith.”

    (Maktubat, Daftar I, letter no. 48, p. 120)

  2. “Though the office of prophethood has been ended, still the perfect followers of the prophets can share some attainments and characteristics of prophethood through inheritance and obedience.”

    (ibid., Daftar II, letter no. 6, p. 25)

  3. “I am the disciple of God and also His intention. My devotion to God is linked directly to Him without any intermediary. My hand is the representative of God’s hand. Glory be to Him! So I am the disciple of the Holy Prophet Muhammad as well as his spiritual brother.”

    (ibid., Daftar III, letter no. 87, p. 209)

  4. “It should be known that it is allowable that a person attain nearness to prophethood by the path of attaining to sainthood, and have something of both of these.”

    (Letter no. 123, p. 348)

  5. “During spiritual progress, I reached the station of Usman [the third Caliph of Islam] and, passing beyond it, reached the station of Farooq [Umar, the second Caliph]. Passing beyond that, I reached the station of Siddiq [Abu Bakr, the first Caliph]. Passing beyond that, I reached the station of being the beloved of God, and saw in myself the reflection of all the light and blessings of this station.”

    (Letter of Shaikh Ahmad quoted by Moghal emperor Jehangir in his diary, Tauzak Jehangiri, p. 272, published in Ghazipur, 1863)

  6. “Since the religious law brought by the Holy Prophet Muhammad is protected from abrogation and alteration, for this reason the learned ones of the Muslim nation have been given the place of prophets.”

    (Maktubat, Daftar I, letter no. 209, p. 34)

  7. “Due to their complete devotion and overflowing love, rather, as a mere gift and favour, the perfect followers of the prophets absorb the attainments of the prophet they follow, and become fully coloured with his colour, so much so that between the prophets and the followers there remains no difference, except that the prophet reaches his position directly while the follower attains it through obedience, or that the prophet precedes and the follower comes after ... so one cannot imagine equality between the original and the image (zill).”

    (ibid., letter no. 248)

  8. “A follower attains such a likeness to the one he follows that there no longer remains the concept of ‘following’, and the distinction between the follower and the mentor vanishes. It appears as if whatever the follower obtains, while being in the colour of his prophet, is obtained directly from God, as if the two of them are drinking from the same fountain and are in each other’s arms, and are in the same bed, and are hand-in-glove. Where is the follower, and who is the master, and whose obedience! In their unity there remains no room for separateness, and there appears no difference between the acts of following and of being followed.”

    (ibid., Daftar II, letter no. 54, p. 172)

3. Khawaja Habib-ullah Attar of Kashmir (15th century saint)

He instructed a disciple of his as follows about the Kalima:
“Lengthen your saying of la ilaha [‘There is no god’], and efface the thought of all others than God from the heart. After that, ill-Allah [‘except Allah’] should be stressed, and you should consider me to be the messenger of Allah.”

(Masnawi Bahr al-Irfan, vol. i, p. 179)

4. Baba Dawud Khaki

He wrote the following in praise of his spiritual guide Hazrat Makhdum of Kashmir:
“As the Holy Prophet Muhammad has said that the spiritual guide is like a prophet,
“How can a man be a believer who denies such a prophet.”

(Wird al-Murideen)

5. Ali Hujwiri, Data Ganj Bakhsh (d. 1071 C.E.)

This renowned saint of Lahore, author of the acclaimed Persian classic Kashf al-Mahjub, wrote:
  1. “So God has kept the proof of the truth of the Holy Prophet Muhammad alive till today, and has made the saints the means through which it is displayed, so that the signs of God and the evidence of the Holy Prophet’s truth be manifested forever.”

    (Kashf al-Mahjub, Persian, p. 167)

  2. “The saint does not reach perfection till he enters the circle of the prophets.”

    (As quoted in the Urdu book The Constitution of Pakistan and the Ahmadiyya Sect, p. 23)

6. Farid-ud-Din Shakar Ganj of Pak Patan (d. 1265 C.E.)

He says in a poetic verse:
“I am wali [saint], I am Ali, I am nabi [prophet].”

(Haqiqat Gulzar Sabiri, by Shah Muhammad Hasan Sabiri, first published in Rampur, 1886, sixth edition published by Maktaba Sabiriyya, Qasur, Pakistan, 1983, p. 414. See also well-known Urdu daily Nawa-i Waqt, Lahore, Pakistan, 4 July 1964.)

7. Anwar as-Sufiyya

In this Lahore monthly magazine, it said in an article under the heading Sainthood:
“What greater proof of the truth of the teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and his blessings can there be than the fact that whoever follows him perfectly receives a ‘reflected’ (zilli) prophethood from God, is given the task of preaching to mankind, and is appointed a khalifa or deputy for the support of the religion of Islam. There have been such exalted persons in every age, and there will continue to be such persons in the future, regarding whom the Holy Prophet has said: ‘The learned ones of my nation are like the prophets of Israel’.”

(Anwar as-Sufiyya, vol. iv, no. 3, December 1907, p. 12)

8. Sultan Bahu (d. 1691 C.E.)

He was the first Punjabi mystical poet. He wrote:
  1. “The station of fana fish-shaikh [self-annihilation in one’s spiritual mentor] means that whenever the seeker-after-God should imagine the figure of his spiritual guide in his heart, the latter should come forthwith [spiritually] and lead him by the hand to the company of the Holy Prophet Muhammad. Such a guide is referred to as yuhyi wa yumeet [an expression in the Quran meaning He gives life and causes death].”

    (Kaleed at-Tauheed, pp. 37 – 38)

  2. He writes in poetic verse:

    “The arsh [Throne], the kursi [Chair], the luh [Tablet] and the Qalam [Pen] are all in the heart. He who finds the heart, grieves no more.” (ibid., p. 18)

    (The terms arsh etc. are all well-known expressions in the Quran, referring to various attributes of God such as His power and knowledge.)

    “I am a bird of no abode, I live nowhere but in no abode. So being a dervish is my mark, and I am fana fi-llah [effaced in God].” (ibid., p. 61)

    “Because of inner light, God’s revelation is received every moment [by a saint]. Because of [the Quranic words] We are nigh, he attains Divine nearness and company.
    “He who is looked upon favourably by a dervish, his rank is higher than that of the Divine Throne.”

    (ibid., p. 180)

    “I know only the Truth, I see only the Truth, I cry only Truth,
    “Truth is in me and I am in the Truth, this is the Truth.”

    (ibid., p. 194; Truth here refers to the name of God, Haqq, in the Quran.)

9. Khawaja Shah Sulaiman Tonsovi (d. 1852 C.E.)

  1. The following verses of poetry were written in his praise:

    Arise by God’s command was a miracle at the hand of Jesus, but you made thousands into Messiahs by a single breath.
    “When Moses beheld the Divine light on the mountain, he fainted and lost consciousness of the world.
    “But you O Kalim-ullah [name of Moses] see that light every instant, and still display a smile, desire and full understanding.
    “You are the light of God, your light is in both the worlds. The Throne, the Chair and the stars all display your light.
    “You are the sun, you are the moon, you are the light upon light. You are the light of Muhammad, you are the key to the hearts.
    “The seal of your sainthood is the seal in your finger-ring. What a glorious sainthood, having the rank of messengership (risalat).”

    (Manaqib al-Mahbubin, pp. 249 – 250)

  2. “Hazrat Siyalwi then mentioned a dream of the Khawaja, to wit, that one night he dreamt that over his head and under his feet and to his right and left had been placed the Holy Quran. He asked a learned man the interpretation of this dream. He said: Congratulations, you will abide by the Holy Quran under all circumstances.”

    (Miraat al-‘ashiqeen, p. 28)

10. Hazrat Said Ameer of Koth (d. 1877 C.E.)

He was a well-known saint of Koth, district Mardaan, (North-West province of Indian sub-continent) during the late nineteenth century.
  1. It is recorded about him:

    “On Sunday the 21st of the month of Rajab, the holy saint received in revelation from God the following verses of the Holy Quran:... ‘O Prophet, Keep your duty to God and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites; surely God is ever-knowing and wise’,... ‘Indeed there is for you in the Messenger of God an excellent example for him who hopes for God and the Last Day, and remembers God much’.

    (Nazm al-Durrar fi Silk al-Siyar, by Mulla Safi-ullah, disciple of Said Ameer, p. 152; see also its Urdu translation Durr-i Israr by Abdur-Razzaq Kausar, Sahibzada Book Foundation, Koth, Pakistan, 1985, p. 266)

  2. He said:

    “Know that to be appointed by God means messengership, and everyone who is appointed is a messenger (rasul).”

    (ibid., p. 100; Urdu translation, p. 175)

11. Maulana Abdullah Ghaznavi

He was a disciple of Hazrat Said Ameer, and it is recorded about him that he received many Divine revelations which contained verses from the Holy Quran. See Section 4.3, extract no. 18.

12. Shah Wali-ullah of Delhi (d. 1763 C.E.)

This renowned Islamic philosopher, writer and theologian, recognised as mujaddid of his time, wrote:
“It was put into my mind to convey to the people that this poor one has been taught many languages ... The teaching which was given to Adam was me, the Divine help which Noah received during the flood was me, the fire which cooled for Abraham was me, the Torah revealed to Moses was me, the miracle of raising the dead granted to Jesus was me, the Quran given to Muhammad the Holy Prophet was me. All praise is due to God, the Lord of all the worlds.”

(Tafhimat, Part I, as quoted in journal Curzon Gazette, 15 October 1902).

13. Sayyid Muhammad Ismail Shaheed (d. 1831 C.E.)

He writes in praise of his leader Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi (Muslim religious and military leader in North-West India in early nineteenth century) as follows:
“Joseph has now come to Egypt from Canaan, and a whole world has come for his purchase.
“To give life to the dead the breath of Jesus has now come into the world.
“From Madina my Ahmad has come, from the cave of Saur, to teach the Ansar.
“Sayyid Ahmad came one day with his companions. You should say that the Last of the Prophets came again with his Companions.”

(Najm al-Saqib, vol. ii)

The name ansar is applied to a group of the Companions of the Holy Prophet. Here Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi has been called Joseph, Jesus, Ahmad (Holy Prophet Muhammad), and even the Last of the Prophets. His companions have been called Companions of the Holy Prophet. Such expressions are used because of the similarity and likeness which the saints bear to prophets.

14. Khawaja Mir Dard of Delhi (d. 1785 C.E.)

This famous saint, author and poet, wrote:
“Every perfect man is the Jesus of his time due to the all-encompassing power of God. And every moment he faces for his own self the affair of the soul of Jesus.”

(Risala Dard, p. 211)

15. Shah Niyaz Ahmad of Delhi (d. 1834 C.E.)

He described his spiritual experiences as follows:
“Sometimes I am Idris [Biblical Enoch], sometimes Seth, sometimes Noah, sometimes Jonah, sometimes Joseph, sometimes Jacob, and sometimes Hud. Sometimes I am Salih, sometimes Abraham, sometimes Isaac, sometimes Yahya [Biblical John, the Baptist], sometimes Moses, sometimes Jesus, and sometimes David.”
“I am Jesus son of Mary, and I am Ahmad Hashmi [i.e. Holy Prophet Muhammad].”

(Diwan-e Niaz Barelavi, compiled by Dr. Anwar-ul-Hasan, Lucknow, 1967, p. 68 and p. 65)

16. Khawaja Muhammad Nasir Muhammadi (d. 1758 C.E.)

He wrote in his famous work Nala-yi-Andalib (‘Lamentation of the Nightingale’):
“There have been perfect, and still more perfect, saints among the Muslims. In terms of their spiritual progress and path of development, some were like Adam, some like Noah, some like Abraham, some like David, some like Jacob, some like Moses, some like Jesus, and some were like Muhammad.”

(Nala-yi-Andalib, vol. i, p. 243)

17. Shaikh Sabir Kalyari

He wrote of Sufi Sayyid Abid Mia Usmani Naqshbandi as follows:
“I call him Ka‘ba, or Quran, or Prophet, or God.”

(Mi‘raj-ul-Mu’mineen, pp. 144 – 145)

18. Nasir-ud-Din Chiragh of Delhi (d. 1356 C.E.)

He was the successor of the famous saint Nizam-ud-Din Auliya. In a verse of poetry, he says:
“O you outwardly pious one! What do you ask me concerning the rank of qurb [nearness to God]. It is in me and I am in it, as fragrance is in the rose.”

19. Shah Sharf Abu Ali Qalendar of Panipat (d. 1323 C.E.):

“Moses fainted upon seeing the Divine fire manifested in a tree,
“But I see that very fire in every tree.”

20. Maulana Abu Muhammad Abdul Haqq Haqqani

This modern theologian writes in his Urdu commentary of the Quran:
“A follower of the Holy Prophet may be granted that pure soul which reflects his [the Holy Prophet’s] light, just as a mirror reflects the light of the sun. Then, occasionally, supernatural signs which are known as karamat begin to be shown at his hand. Such a person is called a saint. There are many types of saints, such as ghaus and qutb etc., but there is no scope to discuss it in detail here.”

(Tafsir Haqqani, Prologue, p. 5)

21. Shaikh Abdul Haqq Muhaddis of Delhi (d. 1642 C.E.)

He was an expert of Hadith and a most famous theologian of India. In his commentary on Abdul Qadir Jilani’s book Futuh-ul-Ghaib, he wrote:
“Sainthood is the image (zill) of prophethood.”

(Sharh Futuh-ul-Ghaib, p. 12)

22. Allama Dr Sir Muhammad Iqbal (d. 1938)

This renowned poet and philosopher of modern India and Pakistan composed the following verses in praise of the saint of Delhi Nizam-ud-Din Auliya:
“What the angels read, that is your name. Great is your status, widespread is your grace.
“A visit to your shrine is life for the heart. Your rank is higher than that of the Messiah or Khizr.”

(Baang-e Dara, under Iltija’-e Musaafir)

23. Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan of Deoband (d. 1920)

He was a very well-known teacher at the Deoband theological school. He wrote a long poem in eulogy of his two spiritual guides, Maulavi Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (d. 1905) and Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi (d. 1880), who founded the school in 1867. Some verses are given below:
“Qasim the good and Rashid Ahmad, both possessors of glory, the two of them were the Messiah of the age and Joseph of Canaan.
“They saved the faith from the samaris [corrupters of religion] of the age. I say that the two of them were like Moses and Amran.
“To be in their company and to serve them was, for the dead hearts, nothing less than [the dead] being commanded by Jesus to Arise.”

(Kuliyat Shaikh al-Hind, pp. 14 – 17)

Lamenting the demise of Maulavi Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, he wrote:
“Those who follow their low desires are perhaps proclaiming: Glory to Hubal! [a god of pre-Islamic Arabs], because one like the Founder of Islam has departed from the world. The Messiah of the age has gone to the sky, leaving everyone behind.
“He raised the dead to life, and let not the living die. Just look at this Messianic work, O son of Mary.
“Those who have the taste and zeal for spirituality in their hearts, they were looking for the way to Gangoh even when in Makka.”

(Marsiyya, by Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan)

24. Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (d. 1943)

He was a well-known Deobandi theologian of earlier this century. In his magazine he published a letter from a disciple, explaining the following problem:
“I see in a dream that while reciting the Kalima, ‘There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’, I am using your name instead of Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Thinking that I am wrong, I repeat the Kalima, but despite wishing in my heart to say it correctly, my tongue involuntarily says Ashraf Ali instead of the Holy Prophet’s name. ... When I wake up and remember my mistake in the Kalima, ... to make amends for the mistake I send blessings upon the Holy Prophet. However, I am still saying: ‘O Allah, bless our master, prophet and leader Ashraf Ali,’ even though I am awake and not dreaming. But I am helpless, and my tongue is not in my control.”
The reply given by the Maulana, printed after the letter, is as follows:
“In this incident, it was intended to satisfy you that the one to whom you turn [for spiritual guidance, i.e. Ashraf Ali] is a follower of the Holy Prophet’s example.”

(Monthly Al-Imdad, issue for the month of Safar, 1336 A.H., circa 1918, p. 35)

25. Maulana Ahmad Raza Khan (d. 1921)

He founded the Barelvi group at the end of the nineteenth century, which is much opposed to the Deobandis. It is recorded about him:
“Issue no. 2: The Darood [prayers to invoke blessings upon the Holy Prophet Muhammad], instead of being invoked upon the Holy Prophet, should be invoked upon ‘his eminence’ [Ahmad Raza Khan], as his disciples are always saying in his honour: ‘Allah bless and send peace upon the servant of the Holy Prophet, Maulana Ahmad Raza’.”

(Al-Janna li-ahl al-Sunna, p. 127, as quoted in Deoband Se Barelli Tak, 3rd edition, 1971, Idara Islamiyyat, Lahore, p. 122)

26. Shaikh Sadiq Gangohi

This saint told a disciple to say:
“There is no god but Allah, and Sadiq is the messenger of Allah.”

(Al-Takashaf an Mahmat al-Tasawwuf, p. 594)

27. Maulana Abdul Majid Daryabadi (d. 1977)

He was an Indian religious scholar of recent times. Regarding the use of the word nabi for saints, who are not prophets, he once wrote in his newspaper as follows:
“Recently, by co-incidence, I found an example of it in the poetry of Maulana Rumi. And that too, not in some apocryphal work, but in the renowned and famous, authentic book Masnawi. Regarding the status and excellence of the spiritual guide it is written:

‘When you give your hand into the hand of a spiritual guide, you seek to imbibe wisdom as the mentor is the knowing and discerning. O disciple, he is a prophet of his time, as his person radiates the light of the Prophet.’

“It is clearly stated here that the perfect spiritual guide is the prophet of the time because he reflects the light of prophethood. Great theologians, philosophers, and spiritual men have written commentaries on the Masnawi, but none of them took exception to this form of expression. Rumi’s own son, Sultan Walad, has made the following comment: ‘The exaggeration in likening a saint to a prophet refers to the penetrating effect of his guidance; otherwise, at no time was prophethood thinkable after the Holy Prophet Muhammad.’ — Masnawi, vol. v, p. 67, footnote 13, printed at Kanpur.

“Obviously we will still call it lacking in due caution, but it is equally obvious that instances of such lack of caution are to be found in the writings of the great religious leaders of classical times.”

(Newspaper Sidq Jadeed, 8 August 1952)

28. Pir Jama‘at Ali Shah

It is written about him in a poem:
“Madina is holy and blessed, and so is Alipur. It is well to go there, and well to come here.
“Your court is that court which is the qibla [Muslim direction of prayer] for mankind. Your tomb is the shrine which rivals the Holy House of God [in Makka].”

(Anwar as-Sufiyya, published 1930, p. 9, quoted in Raza Khani Deen, p. 54)

29. Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal (d. 1938)

In praise of the perfect believer, he writes in a poem:
“He is Kalim [Moses], he is Masih [Messiah], he is Khalil [Abraham].
“He is Muhammad, he is the Quran, he is Gabriel.”

(Javaid Nama)


8.3: Conclusion

Many more pronouncements and writings of Islamic religious scholars, saints and divines can be presented, but we rest with the above. This was the prevailing environment of Islamic spiritual thought in which Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad appeared. He was the Reformer, not only of the formal side of Islam (broadly termed Shari‘ah), but also of the spiritual and mystic sides which pertain to spiritual development and are known as Tariqat and Tasawwuf. Hence he has employed and explained the terms and concepts of this aspect of Islam as well.

It must be remembered that these terms of Tariqat are not un-Islamic. It is just that the concepts expressed by the Quran and Hadith in terms such as khilafat (successorship to Holy Prophet), wilayat (sainthood), imamat (religious leadership), mujaddidiyyat, muhaddasiyyat, etc. are referred to by the men of Tariqat as ‘reflected prophethood’, ‘manifested prophethood’, ‘metaphorical prophethood’ etc. (zilli, buroozi, majazi nubuwwat.)

All these terms of Tariqat had been well-known and in vogue since close to the beginning of Islam. And the great theologians of Hazrat Mirza’s time knew that, despite the fact that the Holy Prophet Muhammad was the last and final Prophet, it is not prohibited in Islam for a perfect follower who reaches the stage of fana fir-rasul to use for himself the words ‘prophet’ and ‘messenger’ in a literal, non-technical sense. In fact, this was a standard mode of expression amongst the Sufis. So it was that when Hazrat Mirza, in his first book entitled Barahin Ahmadiyya, published in four parts between 1880 and 1884, quoted his revelations containing the words nabi and rasul referring to him, there was no criticism, and indeed, lavish tributes were paid to this work. For instance:

1. Maulavi Muhammad Husain Batalvi, a leader of the Ahl-i Hadith sect, wrote in a review:

“Few are as well acquainted as ourselves with the life and views of the author of Barahin Ahmadiyya. So we shall give our opinion of it in brief words without exaggeration. In our opinion this book, at this time and in view of the present circumstances, is such that the like of it has not appeared in Islam up to now, while nothing can be said about the future. Its author too has been so constant in the service of Islam, with his money, life, pen and tongue, and personal experience, that very few parallels can be found in the Muslims.”

(Journal Isha‘at as-Sunna, vol. vii, no. 6, June to August 1884, p. 169)

2. Maulana Sana-ullah of Amritsar, a staunch opponent of Hazrat Mirza and the Ahmadiyya movement, wrote in a book:
“My relations with Mirza sahib can be divided into two phases: the period of Barahin Ahmadiyya and the period afterwards. During the period of Barahin Ahmadiyya [i.e. before his later books], I took a favourable view of Mirza sahib. Thus, once when I was about 17 or 18 years old, I was so eager to visit Qadian that I walked there alone from the town of Batala.”

(Tarikh Mirza, p. 53)

3. In his obituary of Hazrat Mirza, the editor of the newspaper Wakeel of Amritsar, Maulana Abdullah Al-Imadi, wrote:
“Though some Muslim religious leaders may now pass an adverse verdict on Barahin Ahmadiyya, ... the best time to pass judgment was 1880 when it was published. At that time, however, Muslims unanimously decided in favour of Mirza sahib.”

(Wakeel, Amritsar, 30 May 1908)

4. More recently, Mr Abdullah Malik has written:
“The trouble is that all this examination is being done now, over sixty years after the death of Mirza sahib. And as to the books and writings of Mirza sahib, a century is now passing over them. So this analysis too must be done with reference to those times. And it must be accepted that at that time, due to various factors of the period, a whole world was deeply impressed by the knowledge, scholarship and writings of Mirza sahib.”

(Panjab Ki Siyasi Tehrikain, i.e., ‘Political Movements in the Punjab,’ Kausar Publishers, Lahore, 1973, p. 270)


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